Functions¶
All NNabla functions are derived from the nnabla.function.Function
class.
Function¶

class
nnabla.function.
Function
¶ Function interface class.
Instances of
nnabla.function.Function
are not directly created by users. It is indirectly created by the functions available innnabla.functions
. These functions returnnnabla.Variable
(s) holding the created function instance as the parent property.
backward
(self, inputs, outputs, accum=None)¶

forward
(self, inputs, outputs)¶

grad_depends_output_data
(self, int i, int o)¶

info
¶ info – object

inplace_data
(self, int i)¶

inplace_data_with
(self, int i)¶

inplace_grad
(self, int i)¶

inplace_grad_with
(self, int i)¶

min_outputs
(self)¶

setup
(self, inputs, outputs)¶
Experimental
Get tags of the function.

List of Functions¶
The nnabla.functions
module provides various types of functions listed below.
These functions takes input nnabla.Variable
(s) as its leading argument(s), followed by options
specific to each function.
 Note:
 The functions can also take
NdArray
(s) as output(s) holding output values of the operation. We call this “Imperative Mode” (NdArray + Functions).
Neural Network Layers¶

nnabla.functions.
affine
(x, weight, bias=None, base_axis=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Affine layer, also called as the fully connected layer. It calculates:
\[{\mathbf y} = {\mathbf A} {\mathbf x} + {\mathbf b}.\]where \({\mathbf x}\) is the input and \({\mathbf y}\) is the output.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – Input ND array with shape (\(M_0 \times ... \times M_{B1} \times D_B \times ... \times D_N\)). Dimensions before and after base_axis are flattened as if it is a matrix.
 weight (Variable) – Weight matrix with shape (\((D_B \times ... \times D_N) \times L\)) [parameter]
 bias (Variable) – Bias vector (\(L\)) [optional][parameter]
 base_axis (int) – Base axis of Affine operation. Dimensions up to base_axis is treated as sample dimension. [default=``1``]
Returns: \((B + 1)\)D array. (\(M_0 \times ... \times M_{B1} \times L\))
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
convolution
(x, weight, bias=None, base_axis=1, pad=None, stride=None, dilation=None, group=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ ND Convolution with bias.
See references for dilated convolution (a.k.a. atrous convolution).
References
 Chen et al., DeepLab: Semantic Image Segmentation with Deep Convolutional Nets, Atrous Convolution, and Fully Connected CRFs.
 Yu et al., MultiScale Context Aggregation by Dilated Convolutions.
Note
Convolution is a computationally intensive operation that should preferrably be run with the cudnn backend. NNabla then uses CuDNN library functions to determine and cache the fastest algorithm for the given set of convolution parameters, which results in additional memory consumption which may pose a problem for GPUs with insufficient memory size. In that case, the NNABLA_CUDNN_WORKSPACE_LIMIT environment variable can be used to restrict the choice of algorithms to those that fit the given workspace memory limit, expressed in bytes. In some cases it may also be desired to restrict the automatic search to algorithms that produce deterministic (reproducable) results. This can be requested by setting the the environment variable NNABLA_CUDNN_DETERMINISTIC to a nonzero value.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – \((B + 1 + N)\)D array (\(M_1 \times ... \times M_B \times C \times L_1 \times ... \times L_N\)).
 weight (Variable) – \((2 + N)\)D array (\(C' \times C \times K_1 \times ... \times K_N\)). [parameter]
 bias (Variable) – Bias vector (\(C'\)). [optional][parameter]
 base_axis (int) – base axis \(B\). [default=``1``]
 pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Padding sizes for dimensions. [default=``(0,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  stride (
tuple
ofint
) – Stride sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  dilation (
tuple
ofint
) – Dilation sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  group (int) – Number of groups of channels. This makes the connection across channels sparser, by grouping connections along the mapping direction. [default=``1``]
Returns: \((B + 1 + N)\)D array (\(M_1 \times ... \times M_B \times C' \times L'_1 \times ... \times L'_N\)).
A spatial size of the output is calculated as
\[L'_i = \frac{L_i + 2 p_i  d_i (k_i  1)  1}{s_i} + 1,\]where \(L_i\) is the spatial size, \(p_i\) is the padding, \(d_i\) is the dilation, \(k_i\) is the kernel size, and \(s_i\) is the stride for \(i\)th spatial dimension. The same calculation can also be applied to the other spatial dimensions.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
depthwise_convolution
(x, weight, bias=None, base_axis=1, pad=None, stride=None, dilation=None, multiplier=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ ND Depthwise Convolution with bias.
References
Parameters:  x (Variable) – \((B + 1 + N)\)D array (\(M_1 \times ... \times M_B \times C \times L_1 \times ... \times L_N\)).
 weight (Variable) – \((1 + N)\)D array (\(C \times K_1 \times ... \times K_N\)). [parameter]
 bias (Variable) – Bias vector (\(C\)). [optional][parameter]
 base_axis (int) – base axis \(B\). [default=``1``]
 pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Padding sizes for dimensions. [default=``(0,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  stride (
tuple
ofint
) – Stride sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  dilation (
tuple
ofint
) – Dilation sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  multiplier (int) – Number of output feature maps per input feature map. [default=``1``]
Returns: \((B + 1 + N)\)D array (\(M_1 \times ... \times M_B \times C' \times L'_1 \times ... \times L'_N\)).
The output map size \(C'\) is \(C\) multiplied by \(m\)
\[C' = m \times C,\]where \(m\) is the multiplier.
A spatial size of the output is calculated as
\[L'_i = \frac{L_i + 2 p_i  d_i (k_i  1)  1}{s_i} + 1,\]where \(L_i\) is the spatial size, \(p_i\) is the padding, \(d_i\) is the dilation, \(k_i\) is the kernel size, and \(s_i\) is the stride for \(i\)th spatial dimension. The same calculation can also be applied to the other spatial dimensions.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
deconvolution
(x, weight, bias=None, base_axis=1, pad=None, stride=None, dilation=None, group=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ ND deconvolution, also known as transposed convolution, with bias operates backward convolution (derivative of the output w.r.t. the input) plus channelwise learned bias.
The weights are specified in the same manner as
convolution()
, as if it was an ordinary convolution function. The forward operation ofdeconvolution()
will then be operationally equivalent to the backward pass ofconvolution()
. Therefore, the number of input channels (can be seen as output channels of forward convolution) is specified in the first dimension, and the number of the output channels divided by the number of groups is specified in the second dimension.Parameters:  x (Variable) – \((B + 1 + N)\)D array (\(M_1 \times ... \times M_B \times C \times L_1 \times ... \times L_N\)).
 weight (Variable) – \((2 + N)\)D array (\(C' \times C \times K_1 \times ... \times K_N\)). [parameter]
 bias (Variable) – Bias vector (\(C'\)). [optional][parameter]
 base_axis (int) – base axis \(B\). [default=``1``]
 pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Padding sizes for dimensions. [default=``(0,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  stride (
tuple
ofint
) – Stride sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  dilation (
tuple
ofint
) – Dilation sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  group (int) – Number of groups of channels. This makes the connection across channels sparser, by grouping connections along the mapping direction. [default=``1``]
Returns: \((B + 1 + N)\)D array (\(M_1 \times ... \times M_B \times C' \times L'_1 \times ... \times L'_N\)).
A spatial size of the output is calculated as
\[L'_i =s_i (L_i  1)  2 p_i + d_i (k_i  1) + 1,\]where \(s_i\) is the stride, \(L_i\) is the spatial size, \(p_i\) is the padding, \(d_i\) is the dilation, and \(k_i\) is the kernel size for \(i\)th spatial dimension. The same calculation can also be applied to the other spatial dimensions.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
depthwise_deconvolution
(x, weight, bias=None, base_axis=1, pad=None, stride=None, dilation=None, divisor=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Depthwise deconvolution computes the transposed depthwise convolution with bias for onedimensional and twodimensional input data.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – \((B + 1 + N)\)D array (\(M_1 \times ... \times M_B \times C \times L_1 \times ... \times L_N\)).
 weight (Variable) – \((1 + N)\)D array (\(C \times K_1 \times ... \times K_N\)). [parameter]
 bias (Variable) – Bias vector (\(C\)). [optional][parameter]
 base_axis (int) – base axis \(B\). [default=``1``]
 pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Padding sizes for dimensions. [default=``(0,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  stride (
tuple
ofint
) – Stride sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  dilation (
tuple
ofint
) – Dilation sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  divisor (int) – Number of input feature maps per output feature map. [default=``1``]
Returns: \((B + 1 + N)\)D array (\(M_1 \times ... \times M_B \times C' \times L'_1 \times ... \times L'_N\)).
The output map size \(C'\) is \(C\) multiplied by \(m\)
\[C' = \frac{C}{d},\]where \(d\) is the divisor.
A spatial size of the output is calculated as
\[L'_i =s_i (L_i  1)  2 p_i + d_i (k_i  1) + 1,\]where \(s_i\) is the stride, \(L_i\) is the spatial size, \(p_i\) is the padding, \(d_i\) is the dilation, and \(k_i\) is the kernel size for \(i\)th spatial dimension. The same calculation can also be applied to the other spatial dimensions.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
max_pooling
(x, kernel, stride=None, ignore_border=True, pad=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Max pooling. It pools the maximum values inside the scanning kernel:
\[y_{i_1, i_2} = \max_{k_1, k_2 \in K} (x_{i_1 + k_1, i_2 + k_2})\]where \(x_{i_1 + k_1, i_2 + k_2}\) is the input and \(y_{i_1, i_2}\) is the output.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – Input variable.
 kernel (
tuple
ofint
) – Kernel sizes for each spatial axis.  stride (
tuple
ofint
) – Subsampling factors for each spatial axis. [default=``kernel``]  ignore_border (bool) – If false, kernels covering borders are also considered for the output. [default=``True``]
 pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Border padding values for each spatial axis. Padding will be added both sides of the dimension. [default=``(0,) * len(kernel)``]
Returns: Maximum values variable
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
average_pooling
(x, kernel, stride=None, ignore_border=True, pad=None, including_pad=True, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Average pooling. It pools the averaged values inside the scanning kernel:
\[y_{i_1, i_2} = \frac{1}{K_1 K_2} \sum_{k1} \sum_{k2} x_{i_1 + k_1, i_2 + k_2}\]where \(x_{i_1 + k_1, i_2 + k_2}\) is the input and \(y_{i_1, i_2}\) is the output.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – Input variable.
 kernel (
tuple
ofint
) – Kernel sizes for each spatial axis.  stride (
tuple
ofint
) – Subsampling factors for each spatial axis. [default=``kernel``]  ignore_border (bool) – If false, kernels covering borders are also considered for the output. [default=``True``]
 pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Border padding values for each spatial axis. Padding will be added both sides of the dimension. [default=``(0,) * len(kernel)``]  including_pad (bool) – If true, border padding values are considered for the output. [default=``True``]
Returns: Average values variable
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
global_average_pooling
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Warning
This function is experimental support, so please do not actively use it.
Global average pooling. It pools an averaged value from the whole image
Parameters: x (Variable) – Input variable. Returns: Average values variable Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
sum_pooling
(x, kernel, stride=None, ignore_border=True, pad=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Sum pooling. It pools the summed values inside the scanning kernel:
\[y_{i_1, i_2} = \sum_{k1} \sum_{k2} x_{i_1 + k_1, i_2 + k_2}\]where \(x_{i_1 + k_1, i_2 + k_2}\) is the input and \(y_{i_1, i_2}\) is the output.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – Input variable.
 kernel (
tuple
ofint
) – Kernel sizes for each spatial axis.  stride (
tuple
ofint
) – Subsampling factors for each spatial axis. [default=``kernel``]  ignore_border (bool) – If false, kernels covering borders are also considered for the output. [default=``True``]
 pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Border padding values for each spatial axis. Padding will be added both sides of the dimension. [default=``(0,) * len(kernel)``]
Returns: Summed values variable
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
unpooling
(x, kernel, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Inverse operation of pooling. It spreads the input values:
\[y_{k_1 i_1 + j_1, k_2 i_2 + j_2} = x_{i_1, i_2}\]where \(_{i_1, i_2}\) is the input and \(y_{k_1 i_1 + j_1, k_2 i_2 + j_2}\) is the output.
Parameters: Returns: Spread values variable
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
embed
(x0, w, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Embed slices of a matrix/tensor with indexing array/tensor.
Parameters: Returns: Output with shape \((I_0, ..., I_N, W_1, ..., W_M)\)
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Neural Network Activation¶

nnabla.functions.
sigmoid
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise sigmoid function.
\[f(x) = \frac{1}{1 + \exp(x)},\]Parameters: x (Variable) – Input Returns: Output Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
swish
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise swish function, by Ramachandran et al. (2017).
\[y_i = \frac{x_i}{1 + \exp(x_i)},\]References
Parameters: x (Variable) – Input Returns: Output Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
tanh
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise hyperbolic tangent (tanh) function.
\[y_i = \tanh (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
relu
(x, inplace=False, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) function.
\[y_i = \max (0, x_i)\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
softmax
(x, axis=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Softmax normalization. Calculates
\[y_i = \frac{\exp(x_i)}{\sum_j \exp(x_j)}\]along the dimension specified by axis, where \(y_i\) is the input and \(x_i\) is the output.
Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
elu
(x, alpha=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise Exponential Linear Unit (ELU) function.
\[\begin{split}y_i= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} x_i & (x > 0)\\ \alpha (\exp(x_i)  1) & (x \leq 0) \end{array} \right..\end{split}\]References
Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
selu
(x, scale=1.05070098735548, alpha=1.673263242354377, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise Scaled Exponential Linear Unit (SELU) function by Klambauer et al. (2017).
\[\begin{split}y_i= \lambda \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} x_i & (x > 0)\\ \alpha (\exp(x_i)  1) & (x \leq 0) \end{array} \right..\end{split}\]The coefficients \(\lambda\) and \(\alpha\) default to the following values \(\lambda_{01}\) and \(\alpha_{01}\), respectively, provided by Klambauer et al. (2017):
\[\begin{split}\begin{array}{lll} \lambda_{01} &=& \left( 1  \operatorname{erfc}\left( \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \right) \sqrt{e} \right) \sqrt{2 \pi} \\ && \left( 2 \operatorname{erfc} \left( \sqrt{2} \right) e^2 + \pi \operatorname{erfc}\left( \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \right)^2 e \right. \\ && \left.  2(2 + \pi) \operatorname{erfc} \left( \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \right) \sqrt{e} + \pi + 2 \right)^{1/2} \\ &\approx& 1.0507 \\ \alpha_{01} &=&  \frac {\sqrt {\frac {2}{\pi}}} {\operatorname{erfc} \left( \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \right) \exp \left(\frac {1} {2} \right)  1} \\ &\approx& 1.67326 \end{array}\end{split}\]References
Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
crelu
(x, axis=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise Concatenated Rectified Linear Unit (CReLU) function. This function calculates the ReLU of \(x\) and \(x\) , then concatenates the results together at a specified axis, and returns the resulting array.
References
Parameters: Returns: ND array where axis dimension is doubled by concatenating.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
celu
(x, alpha=1.0, axis=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise Concatenated Exponential Linear Unit (CELU) function. Concatenates ELU outputs of positive and negative inputs together at specified axis.
Parameters: Returns: ND array where axis dimension is doubled by concatenating.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
prelu
(x0, x1, base_axis=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise Parametrized Rectified Linear Unit function. Calculates:
\[y_i = \max(0, x_i) + w_i \min(0, x_i)\]where negative slope \(w\) is learned and can vary across channels (an axis specified with base_axis).
Parameters: Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
leaky_relu
(x, alpha=0.1, inplace=False, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise Leaky Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) function.
It is defined as:
\[y_i = \alpha * \min(0, x_i) + \max (0, x_i)\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Normalization¶

nnabla.functions.
batch_normalization
(x, beta, gamma, mean, variance, axes=[1], decay_rate=0.9, eps=1e05, batch_stat=True, output_stat=False, n_outputs=None)[source]¶ Batch normalization.
\[\begin{split}\begin{eqnarray} \mu &=& \frac{1}{M} \sum x_i \\ \sigma^2 &=& \frac{1}{M} \left(\sum x_i  \mu\right)^2 \\ \hat{x}_i &=& \frac{x_i  \mu}{\sqrt{\sigma^2 + \epsilon}} \\ y_i &=& \hat{x}_i \gamma + \beta. \end{eqnarray}\end{split}\]At testing time, the mean and variance values used are those that were computed during training by moving average.
References
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array of input.
 beta (Variable) – ND array of beta which is learned.
 gamma (Variable) – ND array of gamma which is learned.
 mean (Variable) – ND array of running mean (modified during forward execution).
 variance (Variable) – ND array of running variance (modified during forward execution).
 axes (repeated int64) – Axes mean and variance are taken.
 decay_rate (float) – Decay rate of running mean and variance.
 eps (float) – Tiny value to avoid zero division by std.
 batch_stat (bool) – Use minibatch statistics rather than running ones.
 output_stat (bool) – It true, the batch statistics of mean and variance, will be returned as Variables. They are also differentiable.
Returns: Returns batch normalization output as
Variable
. Ifoutput_stat=True
, it also returns the mean and variance of the minibatchSee also
nnabla.function_bases.batch_normalization
.

nnabla.functions.
mean_subtraction
(x, mean, t, base_axis=1, update_running_mean=True)[source]¶ It subtracts the mean of the elements of the input array, and normalizes it to \(0\). Preprocessing arrays with this function has the effect of improving accuracy in various tasks such as image classification.
At training time, this function is defined as
\[\begin{split}\begin{eqnarray} \mu &=& \frac{1}{M} \sum x_i \\ y_i &=& x_i  \mu \end{eqnarray}\end{split}\]At testing time, the mean values used are those that were computed during training by moving average.
Note
The backward performs an approximated differentiation that takes into account only the latest minibatch.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array of input.
 mean (Variable) – ND array of running mean (modified during forward execution).
 t (Variable) – Scalar of num of iteration of running mean (modified during forward execution).
 base_axis (int) – Base axis of Mean Subtraction operation. Dimensions up to base_axis is treated as sample dimension. [default=``1``]
 update_running_mean (bool) – Update running mean during forward execution. [default=``True``]
Returns: ND array.
Return type: See also
nnabla.function_bases.mean_subtraction
.

nnabla.functions.
clip_by_value
(x, min, max)[source]¶ Clip inputs by values.
\[\begin{split}y = \begin{cases} max & (x > max) \\ x & (otherwise) \\ min & (x < min) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array.
Return type:

nnabla.functions.
clip_grad_by_value
(x, min, max, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ In forward pass, the function behaves as the identity.
In backward pass,
\[\begin{split}g_x = \begin{cases} max & (g_y > max) \\ g_y & (otherwise) \\ min & (g_y < min) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]A typical case for use is to prevent the gradient explosion through a whole computational graph. For example, if you want to clip gradient values for each feature map,
x = nn.Variable([16, 3, 32, 32]) min = F.broadcast(nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(np.asarray([1.0]).reshape((1, 1, 1, 1))), (16, 3, 32, 32)) max = F.broadcast(nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(np.asarray([1.0]).reshape((1, 1, 1, 1))), (16, 3, 32, 32)) c = F.clip_grad_by_value(x, min=min, max=max) h = PF.convolution(c, 64, (3, 3), pad=(1, 1))
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array of input.
 min (Variable) – ND array of minimum input value by which the gradients of the y are clipped. Note that the shape of min must be the same as x’s and the backward to min is not performed.
 max (Variable) – ND array of maximum input value by which the gradients of the y are clipped. Note that the shape of max must be the same as x’s and the backward to max is not performed.
Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
clip_by_norm
(x, clip_norm, axis=None)[source]¶ Clip inputs by its L2 norm when the L2 norm is larger than the threshold value (defined by clip_norm). If it is less than the threshold, inputs are not modified. If it is applied, the operation is represented as
\[y = N \times \frac{x}{\x\_2}.\]where \(x\) is the input, \(y\) is the output, and \(N\) is clip_norm. this is the case that axes is not set. When axes is set, the norm is computed over axes.
Parameters: Returns: ND array.
Return type:

nnabla.functions.
clip_grad_by_norm
(x, clip_norm=None, axes=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ In the forward pass, the function behaves like the identity.
In the backward pass,
\[g_x = N \times \frac{g_y}{\g_y\_2}.\]where \(g_x\) is the gradient w.r.t the input, \(g_y\) is the gradient w.r.t. the output, and \(N\) is clip_norm where the norm of \(g_y\) becomes. this is the case that axes is not set. When axes is set, the norm is computed over axes.
A typical case for use is to prevent the gradient explosion through a whole computational graph. For example, if you want to normalize gradient values over feature axis,
x = nn.Variable([16, 3, 32, 32]) c = F.clip_grad_by_norm(x, axes=(1, )) h = PF.convolution(c, 64, (3, 3), pad=(1, 1))
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array of input.
 clip_norm (float) – Clip to the norm of input to clip_norm in the backward pass. [default=``1.0``]
 axes (repeated int64) – Axes to be reduced. If empty list is given, all dimensions are reduced to scalar. This is used in the forward pass. [default=``range(x.ndim)``]
Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Reduction¶

nnabla.functions.
sum
(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)[source]¶ Reduction along axes with sum operation.
Parameters: Returns: ND array.
Return type:

nnabla.functions.
mean
(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)[source]¶ Reduction along axes with mean operation.
Parameters: Returns: ND array.
Return type:

nnabla.functions.
max
(x, axis=None, keepdims=False, with_index=False, only_index=False)[source]¶ Reduce the input ND array x along the given axis using the max operation. The axis argument may be a single integer to reduce over one axis, a tuple of integers to reduce over multiple axes, or
None
to reduce over all axes. If keepdims isTrue
, the output will keep all reduced dimensions with size 1. If with_index is True, result is a tuple(sorted, indices)
or onlyindices
if only_index is True. Setting only_index to True implies that with_index is also True.import numpy as np import nnabla as nn import nnabla.functions as F nn.set_auto_forward(True) x = nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(np.random.rand(2, 3, 4)) maxval = F.max(x, axis=1) assert np.allclose(maxval.d, np.max(x.d, axis=1)) maxval, indices = F.max(x, axis=1, with_index=True) assert np.allclose(maxval.d, np.max(x.d, axis=1)) assert np.all(indices.d == np.argmax(x.d, axis=1)) indices = F.max(x, axis=1, only_index=True) assert np.all(indices.d == np.argmax(x.d, axis=1))
Parameters:  x (Variable) – An input variable.
 axis (None, int or tuple of ints) – Axis or axes along which max is calculated. The default value None will reduce all dimensions.
 keepdims (bool) – Keep reduced axes as dimension with 1 element.
 with_index (bool) – Return tuple of max values and index.
 only_index (bool) – Return only the index of max values.
Returns: ND array.
Return type:

nnabla.functions.
min
(x, axis=None, keepdims=False, with_index=False, only_index=False)[source]¶ Reduce the input ND array x along the given axis using the min operation. The axis argument may be a single integer to reduce over one axis, a tuple of integers to reduce over multiple axes, or
None
to reduce over all axes. If keepdims isTrue
, the output will keep all reduced dimensions with size 1. If with_index is True, result is a tuple(sorted, indices)
or onlyindices
if only_index is True. Setting only_index to True implies that with_index is also True.import numpy as np import nnabla as nn import nnabla.functions as F nn.set_auto_forward(True) x = nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(np.random.rand(2, 3, 4)) minval = F.min(x, axis=1) assert np.allclose(minval.d, np.min(x.d, axis=1)) minval, indices = F.min(x, axis=1, with_index=True) assert np.allclose(minval.d, np.min(x.d, axis=1)) assert np.all(indices.d == np.argmin(x.d, axis=1)) indices = F.min(x, axis=1, only_index=True) assert np.all(indices.d == np.argmin(x.d, axis=1))
Parameters:  x (Variable) – An input variable.
 axis (None, int or tuple of ints) – Axis or axes along which min is calculated. The default value None will reduce all dimensions.
 keepdims (bool) – Keep reduced axes as dimension with 1 element.
 with_index (bool) – Return tuple of min values and index.
 only_index (bool) – Return only the index of min values.
Returns: ND array.
Return type:

nnabla.functions.
prod
(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)[source]¶ Reduction along axes with product operation.
Parameters: Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
Backward computation is not accurate in a zero value input.

nnabla.functions.
reduce_sum
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Reduction along an axis with sum operation.
Note
This is deprecated. Use
sum
instead.Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array. Returns: ND array Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
reduce_mean
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Reduction by mean along an axis.
Note
This is deprecated. Use
mean
instead.Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Arithmetic¶

nnabla.functions.
add2
(x0, x1, inplace=False, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise addition.
\[y_i = x^{(0)}_i + x^{(1)}_i\]Parameters: Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
sub2
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise subtraction.
\[y_i = x^{(0)}_i  x^{(1)}_i\]Parameters: Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
mul2
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise multiplication.
\[y_i = x^{(0)}_i x^{(1)}_i\]Parameters: Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
div2
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise division.
\[y_i = \frac{x^{(0)}_i} {x^{(1)}_i}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
pow2
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise power function.
\[y_i = {(x^{(0)}_i)} ^ {x^{(1)}_i}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
add_scalar
(x, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise scalar addition.
\[y_i = x_i + v\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
mul_scalar
(x, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise scalar multiplication.
\[y_i = v x_i\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
pow_scalar
(x, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise scalar power function.
\[y_i = (x_i) ^ v\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
r_sub_scalar
(x, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise scalar subtraction.
\[y_i = v  x_i\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
r_div_scalar
(x, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise scalar division.
\[y_i = \frac{v}{x_i}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
r_pow_scalar
(x, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise scalar power function.
\[y_i = v ^ {x_i}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Logical¶

nnabla.functions.
equal
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise ‘equal’
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,x^{(1)}_i) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i = x^{(1)}_i) \\ 0 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: No Description
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
equal_scalar
(x0, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise ‘equal’ with a scalar
\[\begin{split}f(x_i,v) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x_i = v) \\ 0 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
greater
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise comparison. The \(i^{th}\) element of the output is:
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,x^{(1)}_i) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i > x^{(1)}_i) \\ 0 & (x^{(0)}_i \leq x^{(1)}_i) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: No Description
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
greater_equal
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise comparison. The \(i^{th}\) element of the output is:
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,x^{(1)}_i) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i \geq x^{(1)}_i) \\ 0 & (x^{(0)}_i < x^{(1)}_i) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: No Description
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
greater_equal_scalar
(x0, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise comparison with a scalar. The \(i^{th}\) element of the output is:
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,v) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i \geq v \\ 0 & (x^{(0)}_i < v \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
greater_scalar
(x0, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise comparison with a scalar. The \(i^{th}\) element of the output is:
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,v) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i > v \\ 0 & (x^{(0)}_i \leq v \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
less
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise comparison. The \(i^{th}\) element of the output is:
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,x^{(1)}_i) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i < x^{(1)}_i) \\ 0 & (x^{(0)}_i \geq x^{(1)}_i) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: No Description
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
less_equal
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise comparison. The \(i^{th}\) element of the output is:
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,x^{(1)}_i) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i \leq x^{(1)}_i) \\ 0 & (x^{(0)}_i > x^{(1)}_i) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: No Description
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
less_equal_scalar
(x0, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise comparison with a scalar. The \(i^{th}\) element of the output is:
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,v) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i \leq v) \\ 0 & (x^{(0)}_i > v) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
less_scalar
(x0, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise comparison with a scalar. The \(i^{th}\) element of the output is:
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,v) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i < v) \\ 0 & (x^{(0)}_i \geq v) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
logical_and
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise logical AND.
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,x^{(1)}_i) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i \neq 0 \;\&\; x^{(1)}_i \neq 0) \\ 0 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: No Description
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
logical_and_scalar
(x0, val, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise logical AND with scalar.
\[\begin{split}f(x_i,v) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x_i \neq 0 \;\&\; v \neq 0) \\ 0 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
logical_not
(x0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise logical NOT operation
\[\begin{split}f(x_i) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x_i = 0) \\ 0 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: x0 (Variable) – Input variable Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
logical_or
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise logical OR.
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,x^{(1)}_i) = \begin{cases} 0 & (x^{(0)}_i = 0 \;\&\; x^{(1)}_i = 0) \\ 1 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: No Description
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
logical_or_scalar
(x0, val, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise logical OR with scalar.
\[\begin{split}f(x_i,v) = \begin{cases} 0 & (x_i = 0 \;\&\; v = 0) \\ 1 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
logical_xor
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise logical XOR.
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,x^{(1)}_i) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x^{(0)}_i = 0 \;\&\; x^{(1)}_i = 0) \\ 1 & (x^{(0)}_i \neq 0 \;\&\; x^{(1)}_i \neq 0) \\ 0 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: No Description
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
logical_xor_scalar
(x0, val, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise logical XOR with scalar.
\[\begin{split}f(x_i,v) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x_i = 0 \;\&\; v = 0) \\ 1 & (x_i \neq 0 \;\&\; v \neq 0) \\ 0 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
not_equal
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise ‘not equal’
\[\begin{split}f(x^{(0)}_i,x^{(1)}_i) = \begin{cases} 0 & (x^{(0)}_i = x^{(1)}_i) \\ 1 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: No Description
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
not_equal_scalar
(x0, val=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Element wise ‘not equal’ with a scalar
\[\begin{split}f(x_i,v) = \begin{cases} 0 & (x_i = v) \\ 1 & otherwise \end{cases}.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
sign
(x, alpha=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise sign function.
In the forward pass, it is defined as
\[\begin{split}f(x) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x > 0) \\ 1 & (x < 0) \\ \alpha & (x = 0) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]In the backward pass, it is defined as
\[\frac{\partial f(x)}{\partial x} = 1,\]or in other words, it behaves as the identity function for the gradient in the backward pass.
Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
minimum2
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise minimum.
\[y_i = \min(x^{(0)}_i, x^{(1)}_i)\]Parameters: Returns: ND array of min value
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
maximum2
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise maximum.
\[y_i = \max(x^{(0)}_i, x^{(1)}_i)\]Parameters: Returns: ND array of max value
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
minimum_scalar
(x, val=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise scalar minimum.
\[y_i = \min(x_i, v)\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
maximum_scalar
(x, val=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise scalar maximum.
\[y_i = \max (x_i, v)\]Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Math¶

nnabla.functions.
constant
(val=0, shape=[], n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Generate a constantvalued array.
Parameters: Returns: ND array where all values are the specified constant.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
arange
(start, stop, step=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Generate a range of values within the halfopen interval
[start, stop)
(the interval including start but excluding stop) with step increments.Parameters: Returns: 1D array with the generated values.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
abs
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise absolute value function.
\[y_i = x_i\]Parameters: x (Variable) – Input variable Returns: Elementwise absolute variable Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
exp
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise natural exponential function.
\[y_i = \exp(x_i).\]Parameters: x (Variable) – Input variable Returns: Elementwise exp variable Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
log
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise natural logarithm function.
\[y_i = \ln(x_i).\]Parameters: x (Variable) – Input variable Returns: Elementwise log variable Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
round
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise round function.
In the forward pass, this function simply computes round to the nearest integer value.
\[y_i = round(x_i).\]In the backward pass, the simple StraightThrough Estimator (STE) is applied,
\[\frac{\partial y_i}{\partial x_i} = 1.\]Parameters: x (Variable) – Input variable Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
ceil
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise ceil function.
In the forward pass, this function simply returns the smallest integer which is not less than the input.
\[y_i = ceil(x_i).\]In the backward pass, the simple StraightThrough Estimator (STE) is applied,
\[\frac{\partial y_i}{\partial x_i} = 1.\]Parameters: x (Variable) – Input variable Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
floor
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise floor function.
In the forward pass, this function simply returns the largest integer which is not greater than the input.
\[y_i = floor(x_i).\]In the backward pass, the simple StraightThrough Estimator (STE) is applied,
\[\frac{\partial y_i}{\partial x_i} = 1.\]Parameters: x (Variable) – Input variable Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
identity
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Identity function.
\[y = x\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array. Returns: ND array Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
matrix_diag
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Returns an array where the last two dimensions consist of the diagonal matrix.
Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array with shape (\(M_0 \times \ldots \times M_N\)). Returns: ND array with shape (\(M_0 \times \ldots \times M_N \times M_N\)). Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
matrix_diag_part
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Returns an array in which the values of the last dimension consist of the diagonal elements of the last two dimensions of an input array.
Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array with shape (\(M_0 \times \ldots \times M_N \times M_N\)). Returns: ND array with shape (\(M_0 \times \ldots \times M_N\)). Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
batch_matmul
(a, b, transpose_a=False, transpose_b=False, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Batch matrix multiplication.
Two of batchs of matrices are multiplied for each sample in a batch. A batch of matrices is composed as […, P, Q] where the last two dimensions compose matrix dimensions, and the first dimensions up to the third last dimension are considered as batch samples.
Parameters:  a (Variable) – ND array with >= 2dim. The last two dimensions will be treated as a matrix.
 b (Variable) – ND array with >= 2dim. The last two dimensions will be treated as a matrix. The product of the size of 0th dimension through the size of the third last dimension must be same as that of the input
a
.  transpose_a (bool) – Transpose the last two axes of
a
in matrix multiplication. [default=``False``]  transpose_b (bool) – Transpose the last two axes of
b
in matrix multiplication. [default=``False``]
Returns: Output of samplewise matrix multiplication in a batch. When
a
is of a shape of [N, P, Q],b
is of a shape of [N, Q, R], and transpose options are all False, the output will be a shape of [N, P, R].Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
sin
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise sine (sin) function.
\[y_i = \sin (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
cos
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise cosine (cos) function.
\[y_i = \cos (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
tan
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise tangent (tan) function.
\[y_i = \tan (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
sinh
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise hyperbolic sine (sinh) function.
\[y_i = \sinh (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
cosh
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise hyperbolic cosine (cosh) function.
\[y_i = \cosh (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
tanh
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source] Elementwise hyperbolic tangent (tanh) function.
\[y_i = \tanh (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
asin
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise arcsine (asin) function.
\[y_i = \arcsin (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
acos
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise arccosine (acos) function.
\[y_i = \arccos (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
atan
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise arctangent (atan) function.
\[y_i = \arctan (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
asinh
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise hyperbolic arcsine (asinh) function.
\[y_i = \text{arcsinh} (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
acosh
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise hyperbolic arccosine (acosh) function.
\[y_i = \text{arccosh} (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
atanh
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise hyperbolic arctangent (atanh) function.
\[y_i = \text{arctanh} (x_i)\]Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array Returns: ND array with the same shape as x Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Array Manipulation¶

nnabla.functions.
concatenate
(*x, **kw)[source]¶ Concatenate a variable number of input arrays along the specified axis.
Parameters: Returns: Concatenate variable
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
split
(x, axis=0)[source]¶ Split arrays at the specified axis.
It returns a number corresponding the size of the given axis (i.e
x.shape[axis]
) ofVariable
s.Parameters: Returns: A
tuple
ofVariable
sSee also
nnabla.function_bases.split()
.

nnabla.functions.
stack
(*x, **kw)[source]¶ Joins two or more arrays on a new axis.
Note
Unlike
nnabla.functions.concatenate()
, which joins arrays on an existing axis, Stack joins arrays on a new axis.Parameters:  *x (Variable) – ND arrays. The sizes of all the arrays to be stacked must be the same. [variadic]
 axis (int) – The axis on which to concatenate arrays. Axis indices take on values 0, 1, 2, and so on from the left. For example, to stack four (3,28,28) inputs on the second axis, specify 1. In this case, the output size will be (3,4,28,28). [default=``0``]
Returns: Output
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
slice
(x, start=None, stop=None, step=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Slice arrays along specified axis. This function complies with python slice wherre slice(None, None, 1) and slice(1, None, 1) are the special case, which flips the input array and results in the output array from the end to the beginning of the input array along the corresponding dimension.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array
 start (repeated int64) – Start indices for each axis [default=``(0,) * len(x.shape)``]
 stop (repeated int64) – Stop indices for each axis [default=``tuple(x.shape)``]
 step (repeated int64) – Step indices for each axis [default=``(1,) * len(x.shape)``]
Returns: Sliced ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
pad
(x, pad_width, mode='constant', constant_value=0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Pad the input ND array x over the number of dimensions given by half the length of the pad_width iterable, where every two values in pad_width determine the before and after pad size of an axis. The pad_width iterable must hold an even number of positive values which may cover all or fewer dimensions of the input variable x. If pad_width covers fewer dimensions then it applies to the innermost dimensions of x.
x = nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(np.ones((2, 3, 4))) assert F.pad(x, (1, 1, 2, 2)).shape == (2, 5, 8)
Padding is performed according to the requested mode:
 constant
Pads with a value given by the keyword argument constant_value.
x = nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(np.array([1, 2, 3, 4], dtype=np.int)) y = F.pad(x, (3, 3), 'constant', constant_value = 1) y.forward() assert np.all(y.d == np.array([1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 1, 1]))
 reflect
Pads with the reflection of the vector mirrored on the first and last values of the vector along each axis.
x = nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(np.array([1, 2, 3, 4], dtype=np.int)) y = F.pad(x, (3, 3), 'reflect') y.forward() assert np.all(y.d == np.array([4, 3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1]))
Parameters: Returns: Padded ND array with the same number of dimensions as the input.
x = nn.Variable((3, 3, 4, 2)) # a shape like (B, C, H, W) # 1D padding: last dim by 1 left and 2 on the right side assert F.pad(x, (1, 2)).shape == (3, 3, 4, 5) # 2D padding: last dim by (1, 1) and 2nd to last by (2, 2) assert F.pad(x, (2, 2, 1, 1)).shape == (3, 3, 8, 4) # 3D padding: dims C by (0, 1), H by (2, 1), and W by (3, 3) assert F.pad(x, (0, 1, 2, 1, 3, 3)).shape == (3, 4, 7, 8)
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
transpose
(x, axes, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Transposes tensor dimensions.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array
 axes (repeated int64) – Source axis indices for each axis.
Returns: Transposed ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
broadcast
(x, shape, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Broadcasting NDarray to the specified shape.
Parameters: Returns: Broadcasted ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
broadcast_to
(x, y, axis=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Warning
This function is experimental support, so please do not actively use it.
Broadcasting NDarray to the specified buffer.
Parameters: Returns: Broadcasted ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
flip
(x, axes=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Reverses the order of elements of the specified dimension of an array.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array
 axes (repeated int64) – The index of the dimension to reverse the order of the elements. Axis indices take on values 0, 1, 2, and so on from the left. For example, to flip a 32 (W) by 24 (H) 100 RGB image (100,3,24,32) vertically and horizontally, specify (2,3). [default=``[len(x.shape)  1]``]
Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
shift
(x, shifts=None, border_mode='nearest', n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Shifts the array elements by the specified amount.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array.
 shifts (repeated int64) – The amount to shift elements. For example, to shift image data to the right by 2 pixels and up 3 pixels, specify (3,2). [default=``(0,) * len(x.shape)``]
 border_mode (string) – Specify how to process the ends of arrays whose values will be undetermined as a result of shifting. nearest: The data at the ends of the original array is copied and used. reflect: Original data reflected at the ends of the original array is used. [default=``’nearest’``]
Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
sort
(x, axis=1, reverse=False, with_index=False, only_index=False)[source]¶ Sorts the elements of x along a given axis in ascending order by value. A negative axis counts from the last dimension of x, so the default of 1 sorts along the last dimension. If reverse is True, then the elements are soreted in descending order.
If with_index is True, result is a tuple
(sorted, indices)
or onlyindices
if only_index is True. Setting only_index to True implies that with_index is also True.import numpy as np import nnabla as nn import nnabla.functions as F nn.set_auto_forward(True) x = nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(np.random.rand(2, 3, 4)) sorted = F.sort(x) assert np.allclose(sorted.d, np.sort(x.d)) sorted, indices = F.sort(x, with_index=True) assert np.allclose(sorted.d, np.sort(x.d)) assert np.all(indices.d == np.argsort(x.d)) indices = F.sort(x, only_index=True) assert np.all(indices.d == np.argsort(x.d))
Parameters: Returns:
Variable
sorted orVariable
indices or (Variable
sorted,Variable
indices)

nnabla.functions.
reshape
(x, shape, inplace=True, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Reshapes the input variable inplace. It does not create a copy of the variable. The output variable (y) has a new shape but points to the same data as the input variable (x). This means that if the data in the output variable (y) is modified, the data in the input variable (x) also gets modified since the reshape was done inplace.
Note
This function has the same behavior as the
nnabla.Variable.reshape()
method.Parameters: Returns: Reshaped ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
one_hot
(x, shape, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ OneHot creates onehot vector based on input indices.
Parameters: Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Stochasticity¶

nnabla.functions.
rand
(low=0, high=1, shape=[], seed=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Samples numbers from a uniform distribution \(x \sim U(low, high)\) given lowest value \(low\), upper bound \(high\), and shape of the returned Variable.
Parameters: Returns: Variable with the shape specified in the argument.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
randint
(low=0, high=1, shape=[], seed=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Samples integer numbers from a uniform distribution \(x \sim U(low, high)\) given lowest value \(low\), upper bound \(high\), and shape of the returned Variable.
Parameters: Returns: Variable with the shape specified in the argument. The dtype is int32.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
randn
(mu=0, sigma=1, shape=[], seed=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Samples numbers from a normal distribution \(x \sim N(\mu, \sigma)\) given mean \(\mu\), standard deviation \(\sigma\), and shape of the returned Variable.
Parameters: Returns: Variable with the shape specified in the argument.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
dropout
(x, p=0.5, seed=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Dropout. Samples a number \(u\) from a uniform distribution in \([0, 1]\) , and ignores the input if \(u \leq p\).
\[\begin{split}y = \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} \frac{x}{1  p} & (u > p) \\ 0 & ({\rm otherwise}) \end{array} \right.\end{split}\]Note
Usually dropout only applied during training as below (except Bayesian dropout).
h = PF.affine(x, num_hidden) if train: h = F.dropout(h, 0.5)
Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
top_k_data
(x, k, abs=False, reduce=True, base_axis=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Select the k largest values from each sample in x to propagate unmodified and set all other values to 0. If abs is True, the k largest values are selected by magnitude. If reduce is True (the default), all feature dimensions are reduced to a single dimension of size k that propagates only the k largest values. Otherwise, if reduce is False, input and output dimensions are identical. Dimensions before base_axis are treated as number of sample dimensions and k values get selected from all elements of a sample (dimensions from base_axis) regardless of shape.
>>> import nnabla as nn, nnabla.functions as F >>> x = nn.Variable((4, 5, 6)) >>> F.top_k_data(x, 3, reduce=False).shape (4, 5, 6) >>> F.top_k_data(x, 3, reduce=True).shape (4, 3) >>> F.top_k_data(x, 3, reduce=True, base_axis=2).shape (4, 5, 3)
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array
 k (int) – Number of largest data values to propagate.
 abs (bool) – Determine largest data values by magnitude. [default=``False``]
 reduce (bool) – Reduce feature size to one dimension of size k. [default=``True``]
 base_axis (int) – First dimension of the sample shape. [default=``1``]
Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
top_k_grad
(x, k, abs=False, base_axis=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Select the k largest gradients for each sample in x to backpropagate unmodified and set all other gradients to 0. If abs is True, the k largest gradients are selected by magnitude. Dimensions before base_axis are treated as number of sample dimensions and k gradients get selected from all gradients of a sample (dimensions from base_axis) regardless of shape.
Parameters: Returns: ND array with same shape and data as x.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
random_crop
(x, shape=None, base_axis=1, seed=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ RandomCrop randomly extracts a portion of an array.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array
 shape (
tuple
ofint
) – The data size to extract. For example, to randomly extract a portion of the image (3,48,48) from a 3,64,64 image, specify (3,48,48). [default=``x.shape``]  base_axis (int) – No Description [default=``1``]
 seed (int) – Random seed. When 1, seed is sampled from global random number generator. [default=``1``]
Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
random_flip
(x, axes=None, base_axis=1, seed=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Reverses the order of elements of the specified dimension of an array at 50% probability.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array
 axes (repeated int64) – The index of the axis to reverse the order of the elements. Axis indices take on values 0, 1, 2, and so on from the left. For example, to flip a 32 (W) by 24 (H) 100 RGB images (100, 3,24,32) vertically and horizontally at random, specify (2,3). [default=``[len(x.shape)  1]``]
 base_axis (int) – No Description [default=``1``]
 seed (int) – Random seed. When 1, seed is sampled from global random number generator. [default=``1``]
Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
random_shift
(x, shifts=None, border_mode='nearest', base_axis=1, seed=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Randomly shifts the array elements within the specified range.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array.
 shifts (repeated int64) – Max absolute amount to shift elements. For example, to shift image data horizontally by \(\pm 2\) pixels and vertically by \(\pm 3\) pixels, specify (3,2). [default=``(0,) * len(x.shape)``]
 border_mode (string) – Specify how to process the ends of arrays whose values will be undetermined as a result of shifting. nearest: The data at the ends of the original array is copied and used. reflect: Original data reflected at the ends of the original array is used. [default=``’nearest’``]
 base_axis (int) – No Description [default=``1``]
 seed (int) – Random seed. When 1, seed is sampled from global random number generator. [default=``1``]
Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
image_augmentation
(x, shape=None, pad=(0, 0), min_scale=1.0, max_scale=1.0, angle=0.0, aspect_ratio=1.0, distortion=0.0, flip_lr=False, flip_ud=False, brightness=0.0, brightness_each=False, contrast=1.0, contrast_center=0.0, contrast_each=False, noise=0.0, seed=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ ImageAugmentation randomly alters the input image.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array.
 shape (
tuple
ofint
) – The output image data size. [default=``x.shape``]  pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Border padding values for each spatial axis. Padding will be added both sides of the dimension. [default=``(0, 0)``]  min_scale (float) – The minimum scale ratio when randomly scaling the image. For example, to scale down to 0.8 times the size of the original image, specify “0.8”. To not apply random scaling, set both min_scale and max_scale to “1.0”. [default=``1.0``]
 max_scale (float) – The maximum scale ratio when randomly scaling the image. For example, to scale down to 2 times the size of the original image, specify “2.0”. [default=``1.0``]
 angle (float) – The rotation angle range in radians when randomly rotating the image. The image is randomly rotated in the Angle to +Angle range. For example, to rotate in a +15 degree range, specify “0.26” (15 degrees/360 degrees * 2PI). To not apply random rotation, specify “0.0”. [default=``0.0``]
 aspect_ratio (float) – The aspect ratio range when randomly deforming the image. For example, to deform aspect ratio of image from 1:1.3 to 1.3:1, specify “1.3”. To not apply random deforming, specify “1.0”. [default=``1.0``]
 distortion (float) – The distortion range when randomly distorting the image. To not apply distortion, specify “0.0”. [default=``0.0``]
 flip_lr (bool) – Whether to randomly flip the image horizontally at 50% probability. [default=``False``]
 flip_ud (bool) – Whether to randomly flip the image vertically at 50% probability. [default=``False``]
 brightness (float) – The absolute range of values to randomly add to the brightness. A random value in the Brightness to +Brightness range is added to the brightness. For example, to vary the brightness in the 0.05 to +0.05 range, specify “0.05”. To not apply random addition to brightness, specify “0.0”. [default=``0.0``]
 brightness_each (bool) – Whether to apply the random addition to brightness (as specified by brightness) to each color channel. True: brightness is added based on a different random number for each channel. False: brightness is added based on a random number common to all channels. [default=``False``]
 contrast (float) – The range in which to randomly vary the image contrast. The contrast is varied in the 1/Contrast times to Contrast times range. The output brightness is equal to (input  contrast_center) * contrast + contrast_center. For example, to vary the contrast in the 0.91 times to 1.1 times range, specify “1.1”. To not apply random contrast variation, specify “1.0”. [default=``1.0``]
 contrast_center (float) – Intensity center used for applying contrast. [default=``0.0``]
 contrast_each (bool) – Whether to apply the random contrast variation (as specified by contrast) to each color channel. True: contrast is varied based on a different random number for each channel. False: contrast is varied based on a random number common to all channels. [default=``False``]
 noise (float) – Sigma of normal random number to be added. [default=``0.0``]
 seed (int) – Random seed. When 1, seed is sampled from global random number generator. [default=``1``]
Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Loss Functions¶

nnabla.functions.
sigmoid_cross_entropy
(x, target, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise cross entropy between x and the target variables, passed to a sigmoid function.
\[y_i =  \left(x^{(1)}_i \ln \left(\sigma \left(x^{(0)}_i \right)\right) + \ \left(1  x^{(1)}_i\right) \ln \left(1  \sigma \left(x^{(0)}_i \ \right)\right)\right)\]where \(\sigma(s)=\frac{1}{1+\exp(s)}\).
Note
SigmoidCrossEntropy is equivalent to Sigmoid+BinaryCrossEntropy, but computing them at once has the effect of reducing computational error.
Parameters: Returns: ND array of elementwise losses.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
binary_cross_entropy
(x, target, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise cross entropy between x and the target variables.
\[y_i =  \left(x^{(1)}_i * \ln \left(x^{(0)}_i\right) + \left(1  \ x^{(1)}_i\right) * \ln \left(1  x^{(0)}_i\right)\right).\]Parameters: Returns: ND array of elementwise losses.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
softmax_cross_entropy
(x, target, axis=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise cross entropy between the variables and the variables of a label given by a category index with Softmax normalization.
\[y_{j} = \ln \left(\frac{\exp(x_{j,t_j})}{\sum_{i'} \exp(x_{j,i'})}\right)\]along dimension specified by axis (\(i\) is the axis where normalization is performed on).
Note
SoftmaxCrossEntropy is equivalent to Softmax+CategoricalCrossEntropy, but computing them at once has the effect of reducing computational error.
Parameters: Returns: ND array of elementwise losses. \((D_1 \times ... \times 1 \times ... \times D_N)\)
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
categorical_cross_entropy
(x, target, axis=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise cross entropy between x and the target t where targets are given by a category index.
\[y_{j} = \ln \left( x_{j, t_j} \right)\]along dimension specified by axis (\(i\) is the axis where normalization is performed on).
Parameters: Returns: ND array of elementwise losses. \((D_1 \times ... \times 1 \times ... \times D_N)\)
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
squared_error
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise squared error
\[y_i = \left(x^{(0)}_i  x^{(1)}_i\right)^2.\]Parameters: Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
absolute_error
(x0, x1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise absolute error
\[y_i =  x^{(0)}_i  x^{(1)}_i .\]Parameters: Returns: ND array.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
huber_loss
(x0, x1, delta=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise Huber loss
\[\begin{split}y_i= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} d^2 & (d < \delta)\\ \delta (2 d  \delta) & ({\rm otherwise}) \end{array} \right.\end{split}\]where \(d = x^{(0)}_i  x^{(1)}_i\)
Parameters: Returns: ND array of elementwise losses.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
epsilon_insensitive_loss
(x0, x1, epsilon, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise Epsilon Insensitive Loss
\[\begin{split}y_i= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll}  x^{(0)}_i  x^{(1)}_i   \epsilon & if \ \  x^{(0)}_i  x^{(1)}_i  > \epsilon \\ 0 & otherwise \end{array} \right.\end{split}\]Parameters: Returns: ND array of elementwise losses.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
kl_multinomial
(p, q, base_axis=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ The Kullback Leibler Divergence for multinomial distributions.
\[D = \sum_i p_i \log \left( \frac{p_i}{q_i} \right)\]Parameters: Returns: Kullback Leibler divergence \(KL(p \parallel q)\).
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Signal Processing¶

nnabla.functions.
interpolate
(x, scale=None, output_size=None, mode='linear', align_corners=None)[source]¶ Resize an ND array with interpolation.
Scaling factors for spatial dimensions are determined by either
scale
oroutput_size
.nd = len(scale)
ornd = len(output_size)
determines the number of spatial dimensions, and the lastnd
dimensions of the inputx
are considered as the spatial dimensions to be resized.If
scale
is given, theoutput_size
is calculated byoutput_size[i] = floor(scale[i] * x.shape[i  len(scale)])
.Example:
import numpy as np import nnabla as nn import nnabla.functions as F x_data = np.random.rand(64, 3, 224, 224) x = nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(x_data) # Resize by scales y = F.interpolate(x, scale=(2, 2), mode='linear') print(y.shape) # (64, 3, 448, 448) y.forward() print(y.d) # Print output # Resize to a size y2 = F.interpolate(x, output_size=(320, 257), mode='linear') print(y2.shape) # (64, 3, 320, 257) y2.forward() print(y2.d) # Print output
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array with an arbitrary number of dimensions.
 scale (tuple of ints) – Scale factors along axes. The default is
None
, and if this is omitted,output_size
must be specified.  output_size (tuple of ints) – The output sizes for axes. If this is
given, the scale factors are determined by the output sizes and the
input sizes. The default is
None
, and if this is omitted,scale
must be specified.  mode (str) – Interpolation mode chosen from (‘linear’’nearest’). The default is ‘linear’.
 align_corners (bool) – If true, the corner pixels of input and output
arrays are aligned, such that the output corner pixels have the
same values with the input corner pixels.
The default is
None
, and it becomesTrue
if mode is ‘linear’, otherwiseFalse
.
Returns: ND array.
Return type:

nnabla.functions.
fft
(x, signal_ndim, normalized=False, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Complextocomplex Discrete Fourier Transform,
\[X_{k_1, \ldots, k_d} = \sum_{n_1=0}^{N_11} \dots \sum_{n_d=0}^{N_d1} x_{n_1, \ldots, n_d} \exp\left(2 \pi j \left( \sum_{i=0}^{d} \frac{k_i n_i}{N_i} \right) \right),\]where
\[k_i = 0, \ldots, N_i  1.\]This function now supports 1D, 2D, and 3D DFT with or without the leading batch dimension(s).
The input is expected to be complexvalued with at least signal_ndim + 1 dimensions. The last dimension has a shape of two where x[…, 0] is the real part and x[…, 1] the imaginary part.
Example:
import numpy as np import nnabla as nn import nnabla.functions as F from nnabla.ext_utils import get_extension_context ctx = get_extension_context("cudnn") nn.set_default_context(ctx) # Example for a batched 2DFFT and 2DIFFT (batchsize: 2, datasize: 4x3) x_data = np.random.rand(2, 4, 3) + 1j * np.random.rand(2, 4, 3) x = nn.Variable.from_numpy_array(np.stack([np.real(x_data), np.imag(x_data)], axis=3)) y = F.fft(x, signal_ndim=2, normalized=True) z = F.ifft(y, signal_ndim=2, normalized=True) z.forward() np.allclose(z.d[..., 0] + 1j*z.d[...,1], x_data)
Parameters: Returns: FFT transformed signal.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
ifft
(x, signal_ndim, normalized=False, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Complextocomplex inverse Discrete Fourier Transform,
\[X_{k_1, \ldots, k_d} = \frac{1}{\prod_{i=1}^{d} N_i} \sum_{n_1=0}^{N_11} \dots \sum_{n_d=0}^{N_d1} x_{n_1, \ldots, n_d} \exp\left(2 \pi j \left( \sum_{i=0}^{d} \frac{k_i n_i}{N_i} \right) \right),\]where
\[k_i = 0, \ldots, N_i  1.\]This function now supports 1D, 2D, and 3D DFT with or without the leading batch dimension(s).
The input is expected to be complexvalued with at least signal_ndim + 1 dimensions. The last dimension has a shape of two where x[…, 0] is the real part and x[…, 1] the imaginary part.
Parameters: Returns: IFFT transformed signal.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Quantized Neural Network Layers¶

nnabla.functions.
binary_sigmoid
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise binary sigmoid function. In the forward pass, it computes
\[\begin{split}f(x) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x > 0) \\ 0 & ({\rm otherwise})\end{cases},\end{split}\]but in the backward pass, a straightthrough approximation of the gradient is used, i.e.,
\[\begin{split}\frac{\partial f(x)}{\partial x} = \begin{cases} 0 & (x \geq 1) \\ \frac{1}{2} & ({\rm otherwise}) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]References
Parameters: x (Variable) – Input . Returns: Output. Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
binary_tanh
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Elementwise binary tanh function. In the forward pass, it computes
\[\begin{split}f(x) = \begin{cases} 1 & (x > 0) \\ 1 & ({\rm otherwise}) \end{cases},\end{split}\]but in the backward pass, a straightthrough approximation of the gradient is used, i.e.,
\[\begin{split}\frac{\partial f(x)}{\partial x} = \begin{cases} 0 & (x \geq 1) \\ 1 & ({\rm otherwise}) \end{cases}.\end{split}\]References
Parameters: x (Variable) – Input . Returns: Output. Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
binary_connect_affine
(x, weight, binary_weight, bias=None, base_axis=1, quantize_zero_to=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ This function provides a BinaryConnect affine layer. It computes in the forward pass
\[y_j = \sum_{i} sign(w_{j,i}) x_i,\]i.e., the weights \(w_{j,i}\) are binarized to \(sign(w_{j,i})\) and, hence, each weight is in \(\{1,\,1\}\). By this weight binarization, the inner product computations do not require any multiplications anymore as they turn into additions/subtractions.
This function should be used together with
batch_normalization()
.Note
1) If you would like to share the binary weights between other layers, please use the standard, floating value weights (weight) and not the binary weights (binary_weight).
2) The weights and the binary weights become in sync only after a call to
forward()
, and not after a call tobackward()
. If you wish to store the parameters of the network, remember to callforward()
, once before doing so, otherwise the weights and the binary weights will not be in sync.3) CPU and GPU implementations now use floating values for binary_weight, since this function is for simulation purposes.
References
Parameters:  x (Variable) – Input .
 weight (Variable) – Weight . [parameter]
 binary_weight (Variable) – Binarized weight . [parameter]
 bias (Variable) – Bias. [optional][parameter]
 base_axis (int) – Dimensions up to base_axis is treated as sample dimension. [default=``1``]
 quantize_zero_to (float) – Input value at zero is quantized to this value. [default=``1.0``]
Returns: Output.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
binary_connect_convolution
(x, weight, binary_weight, bias=None, base_axis=1, pad=None, stride=None, dilation=None, group=1, quantize_zero_to=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ This function provides a BinaryConnect convolution layer. It computes in the forward pass
\[y_{n, a, b} = \sum_{m} \sum_{i} \sum_{j} sign(w_{n, m, i, j}) x_{m, a + i, b + j},\]i.e., the weights \(w_{n, m, i, j}\) are binarized to \(sign(w_{n, m, i, j})\) and, hence, each weight is in \(\{1,\,1\}\). By this weight binarization, the inner product computations do not require any multiplications anymore as they turn into additions/subtractions.
This function should be used together with
batch_normalization()
.Reference
Note
1) If you would like to share the binary weights between other layers, please use the standard, floating value weights (weight) and not the binary weights (binary_weight).
2) The weights and the binary weights become in sync only after a call to
forward()
, and not after a call tobackward()
. If you wish to store the parameters of the network, remember to callforward()
, once before doing so, otherwise the weights and the binary weights will not be in sync.3) CPU and GPU implementations now use floating values for binary_weight, since this function is for simulation purposes.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – Input.
 weight (Variable) – Weight. [parameter]
 binary_weight (Variable) – Binarized weight. [parameter]
 bias (Variable) – Bias. [optional][parameter]
 base_axis (int) – Dimensions up to base_axis is treated as sample dimension. [default=``1``]
 pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Padding sizes for dimensions. [default=``(0,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  stride (
tuple
ofint
) – Stride sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  dilation (
tuple
ofint
) – Dilation sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  group (int) – Number of groups of channels. This makes the connection across channels sparser, by grouping connections along the mapping direction. [default=``1``]
 quantize_zero_to (float) – Input value at zero is quantized to this value. [default=``1.0``]
Returns: Output
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
binary_weight_affine
(x, weight, binary_weight, alpha, bias=None, base_axis=1, quantize_zero_to=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ This function provides a Binary Weight Network affine layer. It computes in the forward pass
\[y_j = \frac{1}{\\mathbf{w}_j\_{\ell_1}} \sum_{i} sign(w_{j,i}) x_i\]i.e., the weights \(w_{j,i}\) are binarized to \(sign(w_{j,i})\) and, hence, each weight is in \(\{1,\,1\}\). By this weight binarization, the inner product computations turn into additions/subtractions which are followed by multiplication with the scaling factor \(\alpha_j = \frac{1}{\\mathbf{w}_j\_{\ell_1}}\).
Reference
Note
1) If you would like to share the binary weights with other layers, please use the standard, floating value weights (weight) and not the binary weights (binary_weight).
2) The weights and the binary weights become in sync only after a call to
forward()
, and not after a call tobackward()
. If you wish to store the parameters of the network, remember to callforward()
, once before doing so, otherwise the weights and the binary weights will not be in sync.3) CPU and GPU implementations now use floating values for binary_weight, since this function is for simulation purposes.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – Input .
 weight (Variable) – Weight. [parameter]
 binary_weight (Variable) – Binarized weight. [parameter]
 alpha (Variable) – Alpha. [parameter]
 bias (Variable) – Bias. [optional][parameter]
 base_axis (int) – Dimensions up to base_axis is treated as sample dimension. [default=``1``]
 quantize_zero_to (float) – Input value at zero is quantized to this value. [default=``1.0``]
Returns: Output.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
binary_weight_convolution
(x, weight, binary_weight, alpha, bias=None, base_axis=1, pad=None, stride=None, dilation=None, group=1, quantize_zero_to=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ This function provides a Binary Weight Network convolution layer. It computes in the forward pass
\[y_{n, a, b} = \frac{1}{\\mathbf{w}_n\_{\ell_1}} \sum_{m} \sum_{i} \sum_{j} sign(w_{n, m, i, j}) x_{m, a + i, b + j}.\]i.e., the weights \(w_{n, m, i, j}\) are binarized to \(sign(w_{n, m, i, j})\) and, hence, each weight is in \(\{1,\,1\}\). By this weight binarization, the inner product computations turn into additions/subtractions which are followed by multiplication with the scaling factor \(\alpha_n = \frac{1}{\\mathbf{w}_n\_{\ell_1}}\).
Reference
Note
1) If you would like to share the binary weights between other standard layers, please use the standard, floating value weights (weight) and not the binary weights (binary_weight).
2) The weights and the binary weights become in sync only after a call to
forward()
, and not after a call tobackward()
. If you wish to store the parameters of the network, remember to callforward()
, once before doing so, otherwise the weights and the binary weights will not be in sync.3) CPU and GPU implementations now use floating values for binary_weight, since this function is for simulation purposes.
Parameters:  x (Variable) – Input.
 weight (Variable) – Weight. [parameter]
 binary_weight (Variable) – Binarized weight. [parameter]
 alpha (Variable) – Alpha. [parameter]
 bias (Variable) – Bias. [optional][parameter]
 base_axis (int) – Dimensions up to base_axis is treated as sample dimension. [default=``1``]
 pad (
tuple
ofint
) – Padding sizes for dimensions. [default=``(0,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  stride (
tuple
ofint
) – Stride sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  dilation (
tuple
ofint
) – Dilation sizes for dimensions. [default=``(1,) * (len(x.shape)  (base_axis+1))``]  group (int) – Number of groups of channels. This makes the connection across channels sparser, by grouping connections along the mapping direction. [default=``1``]
 quantize_zero_to (float) – Input value at zero is quantized to this value. [default=``1.0``]
Returns: Output
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
fixed_point_quantize
(x, sign=True, n=8, delta=0.0625, quantize=True, ste_fine_grained=True, outputs=None)[source]¶ Fixed Point Quantize
Parameters:  x (Variable) – An input variable.
 sign (bool) – Indicate the signed number or the unsigned number. Default is true.
 n (int) – Bit width used. Note that sign consumes one bit. \(n1\) is used for number representation in signed case.
 delta (float) – Step size.
 quantize (bool) – If true, quantize input, otherwise not.
 ste_fine_grained (bool) – If true, STE is not 1.
Returns: ND array.
Return type: See also
nnabla.function_bases.fixed_point_quantize
.In the forward pass,
\[\begin{split}\begin{equation} q_i= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} max & if \ \ \ x_i > max \\ sign(x_i) \times floor(x_i \delta^{1} + 2^{1}) \times \delta & if \ \ min \le x_i \le max \\ min & if \ \ x_i < min \\ \end{array} \right., \end{equation}\end{split}\]where \(\delta\) is the step size, \((min, max) :=( (2^{n1}  1)\delta, (2^{n1}  1)\delta)\) if \(sign\) is true, \((min, max) := (0, (2^n  1) \delta)\) otherwise, and \(n\) is the total bitwidth used.
In the backward pass when using ste_fine_grained as false,
\[\begin{equation} \frac{\partial q_i}{\partial x_i} = 1. \end{equation}\]In the backward pass when using ste_fine_grained as true,
\[\begin{split}\begin{equation} \frac{\partial q_i}{\partial x_i}= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 0 & if \ \ \ x_i > max \\ 1 & if \ \ min \le x_i \le max \\ 0 & if \ \ x_i < min \\ \end{array} \right.. \end{equation}\end{split}\]Note
Quantized values are stored as floating point number, since this function is for simulation purposes.

nnabla.functions.
pow2_quantize
(x, sign=True, with_zero=True, n=8, m=1, quantize=True, ste_fine_grained=True, outputs=None)[source]¶ Pow2 Quantize
Parameters:  x (Variable) – An input variable.
 sign (bool) – Indicate the signed number or the unsigned number. Default is true.
 with_zero (bool) – Indicate using zero as a quantized value. Default is true. Note that zero consumes one bit.
 n (int) – Bit width used. Note that sign consumes one bit. \(n1\) is used for number representation in signed case. Default is 8.
 m (int) – \(2^m\) is the upper bound of the dynamic range and \(2^m\) is the lower bound, \(m \in \mathcal{Z}\). Default is 1.
 quantize (bool) – If true, quantize input, otherwise not.
 ste_fine_grained (bool) – If true, STE is not 1.
Returns: ND array.
Return type: See also
nnabla.function_bases.pow2_quantize
.In the forward pass of signed case,
\[\begin{split}q_i= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} max_{+} & if \ \ \overline{q_i} > max_{+} \\ \overline{q_i} & if \ \ min_{+} \le \overline{q_i} \le max_{+} \\ min_{+} & if \ \ 0 \le \overline{q_i} < min_{+} \\ min_{} & if \ \ min_{} < \overline{q_i} < 0 \\ \overline{q_i} & if \ \ max_{} \le \overline{q_i} \le min_{}\\ max_{} & if \ \ \overline{q_i} < max_{} \\ \end{array} \right.,\end{split}\]where
\[\begin{split}&& max_{+} = 2^{m}, min_{+} = 2^{m  (2^{n1}  1)},\\ && max_{} = 2^{m}, min_{} = 2^{m  (2^{n1}  1)},\\ && \overline{q_i} = sign(x_i) \times 2^{round(\log_2 x_i)}.\end{split}\]This quantization uses the geometric mean between two poweroftwo numbers as quantization threshold.
In the forward pass of unsigned case,
\[\begin{split}q_i= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} max & if \ \ \overline{q_i} > max \\ \overline{q_i} & if \ \ min \le \overline{q_i} \le max \\ min & if \ \ 0 < \overline{q_i} < min \\ \end{array} \right.,\end{split}\]where
\[\begin{split}&& max = 2^{m}, min = 2^{m  (2^{n}  1)},\\ && \overline{q_i} = 2^{int(\log_2 x_i)}.\end{split}\]When using with_zero as true, a pruning threshold is used to round an input to 0 or \(min\). The pruning threshold is defined in this function as the following,
\[pruning\ threshold = min \times 2^{\frac{1}{2}}.\]If an absolute value of the input is lesser than this value, the input is rounded to 0, otherwise \(min\).
In the backward pass when using ste_fine_grained as false,
\[\frac{\partial q_i}{\partial x_i} = 1.\]In the backward pass when using ste_fine_grained as true,
\[\begin{split}\frac{\partial q_i}{\partial x_i}= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 0 & if \ \ \overline{q_i} > max_{+} \\ 1 & if \ \ otherwise \\ 0 & if \ \ \overline{q_i} < max_{} \\ \end{array} \right..\end{split}\]

nnabla.functions.
prune
(x, rate=0.9, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Prune the input as the following equation,
\[\begin{split}q_i = \left \{ \begin{array}{ll} 0 & abs(x_i) < threshold \\ x_i & otherwise \end{array} \right.\end{split}\]where \(threshold\) is determined by threshold = np.sort(np.abs(x))[int((x.size  1) * rate)].
Parameters: Returns: ND array with the same shape as x
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Unsupported, Special Use¶

nnabla.functions.
vat_noise
(x, w, base_axis=1, eps=1.0, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Noise for virtual adversarial training.
This layer is a special layer for GUI network designing, specialized for getting the noise of virtual adversarial training.
In the backward process, the weight parameter will be replaced with the gradient.
Forward
\[y_i = \frac{\epsilon x_i}{\sqrt{\sum_k x_k^2 + c}}\]Backward
\[\delta x_i = 0\]\[w_i = \epsilon \delta y_i\]Note
This layer is a special layer for GUI network designing.
References
Parameters:  x (Variable) – ND array of noise input. Noise is standard Gaussian noise initially, but the next step, fed back gradient variable.
 w (Variable) – ND array for keep gradient values.
 base_axis (int) – Dimensions up to base_axis is treated as sample dimension. [default=``1``]
 eps (float) – Noise norm (l2) factor. [default=``1.0``]
Returns: ND array
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
unlink
(x, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ This function behaves as an identity function on the forward pass, and deletes the gradient for the background pass.
This layer is a special layer for GUI network designing, used for getting zero backward operation by adding this layer.
Forward
\[y_i = x_i\]Backward
\[\delta x_i = 0\]Note
This layer is a special layer for GUI network designing.
Parameters: x (Variable) – ND array. Returns: ND array. Return type: Variable Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.

nnabla.functions.
sink
(*x, **kw)[source]¶ Creates a dummy variable used to call forward or backward function of multiple variables at one place.
This takes any numbers of input variables with any shape, and creates a single 0shape outputs. The forward pass does nothing. The backward pass set ones to the input grads if one_input_grad is set as true.
Note
sink
can only be called at the very end of the graph, andgrad
of input variables are clearedwheny.backward(clear_buffer=True)
is called.Parameters: Returns: Dummy variable.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Image Object Detection¶

nnabla.functions.
nms_detection2d
(x, thresh=None, nms=None, nms_per_class=None, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ NonMaximum Suppression (NMS) to 2D Object detector output. The input is a 3dimensional tensor with shape of
(B, N, 5 + C)
whereB
denotes batch size,N
denotes the number of detection box candidates, andC
denotes the number of classes of object detection.5 + C
consists of the box coordinatesx, y, w, h
in normalized coordinates (size of each x and y are 1.0), objectness (learned to predict IoU value to ground truth box), and the classprobabilities ofC
classes.It outputs a tensor with the same dimensions as the input, where all values are copied from the input to the output, except the class probabilities are multiplied by objectness, and possibly suppressed to 0 by NMS. During NMS, all of combination of pairs of bounding boxes is compared. For each pair, the bounding box with a lower detection score (described below) is suppressed if the overlap ratio (the IoU) is greater than the value of
nms
.There are two suppression modes for NMS.
1. Suppress by class probability (
nms_per_class
isTrue
): For each bounding box, the detection score is calculated byobjectness * probability[class_id]
for each class. The suppression is done for each class independently.2. Suppress by objectness (
nms_per_class
isFalse
): The suppression is done for each bounding box usingobjectness
as a detection score. All class probabilities becomes 0 for every suppressed boxes.References
Parameters: Returns: A 3dim array with the same dimensions with the input.
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.
Validation¶

nnabla.functions.
top_n_error
(x, target, axis=None, n=1, n_outputs=1, outputs=None)[source]¶ Top N error along the dimension specified by the axis, the element of outputs is
\[\begin{split}y_i = \left \{ \begin{array}{l} 1 \ (x_i \ is \ not \ within \ Nth \ place) \\ 0 \ (x_i \ is \ within \ Nth \ place) \end{array} \right.\end{split}\]Parameters:  x (Variable) – Probabilities ND array. \(D_1 \times ... \times D_i \times ... \times D_N\)
 target (Variable) – ND array of labels. \(D_1 \times ... \times 1 \times ... \times D_N\)
 axis (int) – Axis on which the top N error is calculated. [default=``len(x.shape)  1``]
 n (int) – top N [default=``1``]
Returns: Elementwise error ND array. (\(D_1 \times ... \times 1 \times ... \times D_N\))
Return type: Note
All nnabla functions in
nnabla.functions
are decorated with thennabla.function_bases.function_api
decorator, which queries the current context and passes it into the first argument of the original function. The original function always takes a context as the first argument.